Laser welding simulation

Keyhole induced porosity occurs due to flow dynamics and can initiate cracking.

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After calibration of a heat source models on the chosen examples of SMC steel mm-thick T-joint laser and hybrid welding, distributions of temperature fields, thermal cycles, distributions of individual metallurgical phases and hardness, and strains and plastic deformations in simulated processes were calculated for one selected joint from both mentioned methods.

The combination of new computational models with the ever-increasing computing power of computers allowed the rapid development of new applications for numerically solving issues related to the conduct of welding production processes [ 5 ]. The excessive re-circulation in the rear molten pool as seen in the images below, caused the rear molten pool to collapse on the front molten pool wall and trap voids that result in porosity.

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These include conditions of fixing elements for welding, thermal and mechanical properties of materials used, type of welding technology used and set parameters, ambient temperature and pre-heating, the method of heat transfer to the environment, and many others. Introduction Welding numerical simulations are widely used for the development of new welding technology, as well as for its optimization and validation. The prediction of welding residual stress and deformation has a long history. Presented results of numerical analyses carried out using SYSWELD show the possibilities offered to contemporary engineers by modern software used to make numerical analyses of production processes. It is important to capture all the relevant physical phenomena to have a realistic process simulation. At high welding speeds, there is a larger keyhole opening and this generally results in a more stable keyhole configuration. Because of the necessity for proper numerical analyses creating the possibility of taking into account the relationships mentioned above, modern computational techniques divide the analysis of welding processes into two parts. The excessive re-circulation in the rear molten pool as seen in the images below, caused the rear molten pool to collapse on the front molten pool wall and trap voids that result in porosity. The first is a thermo-metallurgical analysis and the second is a mechanical analysis which is based on results from the previous. After the welding process, residual stresses create a balanced system of inner forces, which exist even under no external loading. The high complexity of the problem is influenced by mutual relationships among temperature distributions, the thermal expansion coefficient, heat shrinkage, and material properties, changing in time and space as a result of the influence of the welding thermal cycle. Correctly performed works allow finding a kind of compromise between the level of strain and stress in the designed joints [ 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 ].

At high welding speeds, there is a larger keyhole opening and this generally results in a more stable keyhole configuration. However, these possibilities caused numerical analyses of welding processes to be one of the most complex calculations to carry out using the finite element method.

Inthe first work to predict residual stresses and deformation was done by Rodger and Fletcher using analytic equations [ 1 ].

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After the welding process, residual stresses create a balanced system of inner forces, which exist even under no external loading. On the other hand, changes in the metallurgical phases, caused by the thermal cycle, have a significant impact on the size and distribution of stresses and strains generated during and after the welding process Figure 1.

These include conditions of fixing elements for welding, thermal and mechanical properties of materials used, type of welding technology used and set parameters, ambient temperature and pre-heating, the method of heat transfer to the environment, and many others.

FLOW-3D provides powerful insights into the laser welding process and ultimately helps achieve process optimization.

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Inthe first welding numerical simulations using the finite element method were done by Brust, Rybicky, Barber, and Masubuchi [ 234 ]. Correctly performed works allow finding a kind of compromise between the level of strain and stress in the designed joints [ 678910 ].

Abstract This article presents examples of numerical simulations done based on the real experiments of SMC steel T-joint laser and hybrid welding.

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On the other hand, changes in the metallurgical phases, caused by the thermal cycle, have a significant impact on the size and distribution of stresses and strains generated during and after the welding process Figure 1. The high complexity of the problem is influenced by mutual relationships among temperature distributions, the thermal expansion coefficient, heat shrinkage, and material properties, changing in time and space as a result of the influence of the welding thermal cycle. Based on the simulation models, the researchers identified unstable keyholes as the primary cause of induced porosity in keyhole welding. The combination of new computational models with the ever-increasing computing power of computers allowed the rapid development of new applications for numerically solving issues related to the conduct of welding production processes [ 5 ]. After the welding process, residual stresses create a balanced system of inner forces, which exist even under no external loading. A moving welding heat source delivers heat to the welded materials in a very specific way. Modern programs for numerical analysis of manufacturing processes using welding techniques, currently available on the market, create completely new opportunities for use by welding engineers. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. This article also presents the benefits resulting from the use of such analyses, due to the significant savings in time and resources to be spent on the development of correct technologies for joining modern construction materials such as thermomechanically treated steels, especially given that some of the results are unavailable or very difficult to collect using conventional measurement methods. With the help of CCD cameras, they could capture the top and bottom melt pool dynamics formed because of full penetration laser welding. The first is a thermo-metallurgical analysis and the second is a mechanical analysis which is based on results from the previous. However, the inability to use the computing power of computers that appeared only after some time meant that the development of this field of knowledge had to wait.

It was when these trapped voids were captured by the advancing solidification front, that porosity was induced.

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NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF THE LASER WELDING